Grammaticalization form the entire process of change from a fully fledged lexical items so you’re able to an excellent grammatical morpheme more than durations

Grammaticalization form the entire process of change from a fully fledged lexical items so you’re able to an excellent grammatical morpheme more than durations


16 tu This new REFLEXIVE PREFIX Into the ZULU – A beneficial TYPOLOGICAL Direction Sonja E. Bosch numer telefonu farmersonly In this article I shall take a look at the the new root of the reflexive prefix inside the Zulu, using extra attention with the means of grammaticalization by which lexemes turn into grammatical formatives. Given that reflexivization in a few Bantu dialects could well be opposed, the content will be in the form of an excellent typological study. Inside the Lehmann s () talk of phenomena which happen to be known as reflexive, it is interesting to see he assumes five categories of reflexives, particularly 0) autophoric nouns which happen to be ordinary nouns like muscles, air, spirit, direct one to ple, within the Sanscrit the fresh new noun dtman meaning inhale, heart, and also in Basque, brand new noun burua meaning head, are used to express the same as English thinking. Autophoric nouns put because the reflexives are often with an excellent possessive pronoun, like in another example out of Vedic: Vedic (1) bdlam dadhana dtmani energy:acc set:part getting fuel inside himself (ii) reflexive nouns which can be nouns saying the meaning self and absolutely nothing else, like the German selbst myself and you will Finnish itse because the portrayed regarding following the examples: 344

17 German (2) Ich komme selbst I am upcoming myself Finnish (3) Halu-at-ko lipu-t itse-lle-au moment ou? Do you want new entry on your own? Inside the languages such as for example Finnish, Hungarian and Turkish reflexive nouns grab possessive affixes, while in almost every other dialects for example German and/or Love dialects, these types of nouns commonly generally in conjunction with possessive pronouns. (iii) reflexive pronouns that have the main purpose of referring back into the niche, like the German sich in the: German (4) Sie waschen sich He could be laundry by themselves (iv) verbal reflexives that are verb affixes proving your step in some way has an effect on the subject, like in the following examples: Swahili (5) a-li-ji-ona SBJ.REFL-come across he spotted themselves Turkish (6) focuk yika-n-di man wash-refl-at night man washed himself Lehmann () emphasizes that borders involving the kinds try liquid and states these five types of reflexive facets are now to your a size regarding expanding grammaticalization.

Put differently, it’s possible to see that it once the a beneficial continuum of changes that getting represented the following: 345

18 Lexical goods Grammatical * morpheme Lehmann (ff) will bring instances in almost any languages in order to teach the changes which have happened or remain taking place from one classification so you’re able to another. The entire process of alter are affirmed because of the Faltz () who, for his morphological difference between a couple of chief kind of reflexives, namely NP-reflexives which may feature a nominal morpheme becoming direct of one’s reflexive noun words, and spoken reflexives, composed of reflexive pronouns which are cliticized onto the verb, remarks: Dialects may go from you to pole on most other, indeed, including path is actually fundamentally throughout the NP-reflexive rod to the spoken reflexive pole. When you look at the Zulu reflexiveness is knew as a prefix and this really precedes the new verb stalk. The fresh reflexive prefix try invariable in form, and thus it is an effective morphological profile which remains lingering regardless of the course to which the antecedent belongs. This might be certainly represented on the after the examples within the Zulu: (7a) Umfana wazishaya the fresh new-man he-themselves smack the kid hit himself (7b) Intombazane izibona esibukwini the newest-lady she-herself-see in-reflect The girl sees by herself on echo On these instances -zi- is the reflexive morpheme and strategies regarding struck and see are brought straight back through to the particular grammatical victims, which is, man and woman. It is fascinating you to inside the generative education, a significant notion is generated into the hidden design from sentences that contains reflexives, particularly NP1 – V – NP1. On the surface, such as for example a houses are ungrammatical about Bantu languages in case your one or two NPs are co-referential and you can identical fit, elizabeth.grams. (8) *USipho wakhohlisa usipho * Sipho cheated Sipho Inside the Zulu for example a phrase is made grammatical of the installation regarding a great reflexive prefix regarding verb and you can the brand new removal of the co-referential noun. e.g. 346